Blu-ray Production process

Blu-ray (not “Blue-ray”), also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is an optical disc format developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), which consists of the leading electronics, computing, and media corporations such as Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK, and Thomson.
Blu-ray format was designed to be able to restore high-definition video and to store large amounts of data, while 3D options provide unique effects. A size of Blu-ray disc is the same as a CD or DVD but is capable to store far more data. Depending on the disc content and structure, there is a variety of Blu-ray formats, and Blu-ray disc types specify the disc capacity.

BD-25

12 cm BD-25 disc contains up to 25 GB of information.

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BD-25

BD-25 – information is recorded one side of the disc into one layer. 12 cm BD-25 disc contains up to 25 GB of information.

BD-50

12 cm BD-25 disc contains up to 50 GB of information.

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BD-50

BD-50 – the information is recorded on one side of the disc into two layers. 12 cm BD-25 disc contains up to 50 GB of information.

Blu-ray production process


1. Premastering

This is a process where customer’s digital data is specifically prepared and transferred into the appropriate format for further stamper production. In case the parameters of the material provided by a customer do not comply with stamper and disc replication requirements, technical data can be corrected during the premastering stage.  


2. Testing

In particular, we make sure that the material provided by customer meets all required standards and is fairly readable by a player. The material is recorded into the information storage device and tested in a special testing device for suitability for further stamper production.


3. Mastering

At this stage, a unique mould, so-called stamper, is produced. The stampers are used to make a disc ingot for further replication.
To produce a stamper the glass mould with a piece of photo-resist (light-sensitive layer) is used, in which a laser beam "records" the information that is going to be in replicated discs.
Recorded glass mould is placed in a special galvanic facility where the nickel layer is grown with a help of electrolysis. Afterwards, a layer of nickel is separated from the glass mould. This produces a stamper – a negative disc image, which is used to replicate the discs.


4. Moulding

When the stamper is made, the disc replication is started.
Thoroughly cleaned stamper is placed into a mould, which is closed and the casting process begins. Using a syringe injects with a controlled, up to ~ 360 degrees heated liquid polycarbonate, a CD/DVD master is poured out. It already contains digital information, but it still cannot be scanned by a laser beam, because the disc is completely transparent.
When replicating BDs, the one disc mould is prepared (thickness - 1,1 mm).


5. Metallization

One of the clear disc sides with the imprinted information is covered with silver layer of 35 nm thickness. This acts as a mirror reflecting a laser beam to read the information.


6. Base Resin (only for BD50)

The first layer of metallization is varnished and covered with special resin, which will be between two recorded layers.


7. Wet-Embossing (only for BD50)

At this stage a wet resin layer is formed. After pressing a stamper into this layer, the information stays in the disc. Before pulling the stamper from the surface of the disc it is dried using UV rays.


8. Layer 1 Metallization (only for BD50)

The second recorded layer is made using semi-reflective material. It is covered with silver alloy with a thickness of approx. 30 nm.


9. Cover Layer

At this stage a cover layer is covered with lacquer which is needed for laser beam to read the information inside the disc correctly.


10. Protection Coating

When the mentioned production steps are finished, the disc is coated with additional protective layers: hard coating and moisture barrier. Such a coating protects the disc form negative environment conditions, such as small scratches and moisture.  


11. Final Inspection

The system measures the thickness and uniformity of the layers unique layer thickness and approves the disc quality.


12. Printing

Screen printing or offset printing method can be used to cover the discs according to the customer’s provided graphic design. The latest technologies allow us to print the discs according to the highest quality standards.